Value of OVK's contributions

Carnatic composers

Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#26  Postby hamsaa » 13 May 2011 09:50

Venkata Kavi has composed many compositions on different deities and I wanted to share the lyrics of a composition on Lord Shanmukha, on whom he has composed in different kshetrams such as Sikkil, Pazhani and so forth.

This is a composition in ragam Kedaram set to Adi talam. It has lovely madhyamakalams and exclusive adjectives and details used to describe the Lord. It brings out the clarity in Venkata Kavi's visualisation and his refreshing approach! The final madhyamakalam in the charanam is a proof to this - (nirantara .... vAmAnga rOham)

Where he describes the lord as -
One who has an eternally dancing peacock as his vehicle
One who is worshipped by the gods, sages and the entire society of good-natured people
One who used innovative war strategies, being the army commander of the devas
One who is perched on the left lap of Lord Shiva

P. gajamukha anujam nitya
kalyANa subramaNyam nityam
bhaja bhaja mAnasa

AP. vraja rAja tanaya bhAginEyam
vidhi nuta charaNam bAhulEyam

MK. vEda nAda praNavAkara bOdham vishva roopam akhila sthiti nAtham
jAta roopa kEyoora makuTadhara shaktyAyudhadharam prateetam

C. ArAdhita sujana samAgama
Ananda bhAshpamEva
dhArA sampAta sthimita pa-
dAmbujam abhijAtam
ksheera varNa bhasmAnkita phAlam ma-
dhyE dyuti kunkuma dharam ati shObham
neerada sama navaneela yavvana
rOhiShajA vallee samEtam

MK. nirantara naTana mayoora vAham
nata sura muni gaNa sujana samooham
sura ripu hara nava veera vyooham
sundarEsha vAmAnga rOham

In the above charanam, in lines 5 to 8, ‘ksheera varNa..... vallee samEtam, he describes the milky coloured ashes that adorn his forehead with the kunkumam (Saffron) in the middle that adds beauty. He also describes his consort “Vallee” who is dark in complexion like the clouds and who was born to a young deer ! A very refreshing approach and visualisation by the divine composer !
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#27  Postby cmlover » 13 May 2011 20:46

Ravikiran

I guess it must be 'vandittamararum' (worshipping devas)
The style of construction of the lyric is distinctly different from T who generally goes for simple pallavi line construction giving scope for sangati explorations which is the unique pioneering contribution of T. I am sure the sangatis in the pre-trinity OVK's songs are the later innovations by musicians after the Trinity patterns. The concert style of rendering of OVK must be a later innovation IMHO. His multisyllabic run-on sentences are difficult to break for neravels (another innovation of T) without interrupting the flow of ideas. On the otherhand the rhythmic continuous flow of the lyrics is ideal for abhinayam to convey the full complete construct. The other day while listening to Sri Manikkavinayagam (son of Vazhuvoor Ramayya Pillai) i heard him mention that it was his father who first adopted OVK for dance performances. Perhaps the Vazhuvoor adaptations for abhinayam may have stimulated musicians to elaborate appropriate 'neravel' lines not originally intended by OVK. I am thinking of the famous MMI neravel of 'kaalinil chilambu konja' which maybe the feedback from Vazhuvoor naTTuvaangam. The continuous flow also is appropriate in the harikatha style which kept alive the OVK compositions.

These are some of my speculations and perhaps Ravikiran can pursue them more fruitfully now that he has started collaborating on dance choreography so we may see more of OVK choreographed on the dance stage in addition to concert renderings...
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#28  Postby chitravina ravikiran » 13 May 2011 21:07

CML,

These are just a couple of examples of krtis in this style, as I wanted to highlight more on the chanda, prAsa and yati of OVK. There are numerous examples which I will soon be sharing that are not only sparsely worded but also in chowka kala, like Sarasija bhava jaye (Kalyani), Arulalan (Shankarabharanam), Prema swaroopa (Anandabhairavi) and Venugana ramana (Todi). Such songs give tremendous scope for sangatis, neraval/kalpana swaras - as can be seen from renditions of MMI, Shri DKJ, Shri TNS etc.

We can see that almost any high quality composer who was also prolific showcases more than one style of composing. T was as capable of composing short sweet devotional songs as he wa capable of an Enduku peddala or Giripai. MD was as capable of creating lilting English note type melodies as he was capable of deep meditative masterpieces. So also OVK. He has showcased weighty masterpieces that are appropriate for pure music settings just as he has showcased rich abhinaya-drama-harikatha kind of compositions. Some can be appropriate for more than one context. Eg: Taye yashoda.
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#29  Postby rshankar » 13 May 2011 21:29

chitravina ravikiran wrote: (madhyamakAlam)
kAkSi enattahum mAkSi manattoru sAkSi phalittiDalAkki tiribhuvanam
AkSi sheluttiDum EkAmra kAmAkSi kaTAkSittaruLa oru kaNamum
The final madhyamakala has word play on the Sanskritised syllable of kSi, not often employed in this manner in Tamil krts. The charanam instances his vivid imagination.
WOW! Absolutely wonderful! Thank you for sharing.
In Eka danta vinAyakam bhajAmi aniSam (nATTai), I think we see the first use of the phrase 'guru guha', right? Well before Sri MD who adopted it as his mudra....
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#30  Postby cmlover » 14 May 2011 01:46

Thanks Ravikiran
I only wish that you share your analysis of OVK with our membership in your objective style step-by-step and responding to 'sensible' queries and ignoring any unnecessary distractions. Our united goal is to restore OVK to his right place in CM history. You have a unique way of appreciating CM compositions highlighting the musical excellences along with lyrical nuances by vitue of your training which is very refreshing. Since we have varied expertise, while lookiing critically at your objective findings we will add our mite in your pursuit of the objective Truth.

To start with a simple query which perhaps you can clarify.
As quoted by Prof SRJ, "Rangaramanuja Ayyangar has recorded that the songs were all preserved in huge bundles of palm leaves lodged in earthern pots and passed on for seven generations among his brother's families". If you had access to those palm leaves they may be carbon dated to establish "objectively" the time-frame of OVK..Even those pots will be an archeologic evidence...
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#31  Postby Suji Ram » 14 May 2011 03:01

cmlover wrote:If you had access to those palm leaves they may be carbon dated to establish "objectively" the time-frame of OVK..Even those pots will be an archeologic evidence...


How accurately can carbon dating determine pre or post trinity? -when the rate of accuracy itself is +- 200 years :tmi:
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#32  Postby vasanthakokilam » 14 May 2011 05:33

The accuracy of 200 years seems to be for much older samples.

According to this web page: http://www.chem.uwec.edu/Chem115_F00/no ... oject.html
"At most the modern samples aged within the last two hundred years will have an error factor of 25 years.."(p. 167 in the following book).
Geyh, Mebus A., and Helmut Schleicher. Absolute Age Determination: Physical and Chemical Dating Methods and Their Application. Trans. R. Clark Newcomb. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1990.
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#33  Postby vidya » 16 May 2011 22:07

Dear Shri.Ravikiran,
While it is interesting to see your analysis and posts on sabdalankara and sahitya aspects such as prAsa and the rhythmic aspects such as nadai/gati bheda, yati etc, I have one question on the raga aspects of these compositions. This pertains especially to those compositions that you say are found "with notations". I ask this because I did not find this information in your book or any of your other posts. These aspects I think would aid in understanding the "raga systems" / "raga structures" used in these compositions by Oothukkadu Venkata kavi. For example: would you be able to throw light on the lakshana, usage and specific phrases that are found in the compositions in the following ragas (a short list based on the ones I saw in your article on OVK).

1.Shuddhasaveri - What form of shuddhasaveri is this? In light of the various differences in name and form of this raga.
2.Anandabhairavi - Some specifics on the Dhaivata used
3.Kannadagowla - Which flavor?
4.Bhairavi - Presence, absence and mixture/ratio of Dhaivata
5.Hamsanadham - Treatment of vivadi phrases
6.Yamuna - On the usage of M1
7.The arohana-avarohana and (possible) lakshana of Kannadamaruva, lalitagandharva and deeparam
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#34  Postby chitravina ravikiran » 17 May 2011 01:42

Dear Vidya ji,

Good questions about the melodic aspects of OVK. I will try to share some of my observations here. The best way to analyse them would be with audios - so far, I have managed to bring out around 50-60 including Navavaranams and Saptaratna krtis. Some of these contain excellent examples of Deshakshi, Balahamsa, Bhairavi, Nadanamakriya, Shuddhasaveri, Kharaharapriya, Punnagavarali, Hindolam and Anandabhairavi. I hope to share more pieces in ragas like Manji, Neelambari, Dwijayavanti (that is the way the raga is mentioned in their school, which co-incides with Jaya-jayavanti), etc in due course.

Some general observations before I give you specific answers:

1. The musical movement in krtis in highly populated ragas like Shankarabharanam, Kharaharapriya, Bhairavi, Sahana etc are distinct.

2. His choice of Deshakshi, Balahamsa etc in the Navavarana set definitely is a pointer to those ragas' prominence then.

3. The masterpiece in Hindolam, Sadanandamayi (Sankeerna Mathyam) is in 2 kalais until charanam and shifts to 1 kalai thereafter gives a weighty feel to the raga.

4. The chowka kala masterpieces in Nadanamakriya (Vaiyam alandu) and Jhunjhooti (Muttukrishna) are very illustrative of his grasp of those ragas.

5. I have not yet seen examples of Saveri, so far (even though he mentions the raga name in one of his pieces). I have only seen Varali as one of the ragas in his Ramayana Ragamalika.

6. His penchant for Paras is captivating. The Saptaratna krti Alavadennalo (which lists the names of the 63 nayanmars) gives this raga a sublime feel, even though the krti contains several madhyamakala charanams (that we see in pancharatnas too). Another piece in the same raga, Innum enna venum also is worth learning.

7. Some of his favourites choices seem to be Todi, Shankarabharanam, Kalyani, Kambodhi, Madhyamavati, Nattai & Arabhi.

8. The seamless dhatu-maatu blend in numerous krtis as well as the integration of melody, rhythm and lyrics clearly suggests a mind of a very high order.

9. Last but not the least, the number of musical references in his compositions including gamakas like aahatam, pratyahatam, dalu, kampitam, sphuritam etc and names of the sapta-talas, sarali, jantai varishais and names of several ragas clearly reveal his scholarship in theory too.

Now to your questions:

Shuddhasaveri and Kannadagowla - General flavour (not MD school approach).
Hamsanadam: Kalyanarama doesn't use D3, in the versions I have heard.
Anandabhairavi: Some renditions of Yoga yogeshwari use more of D1. DKJ sir's version of Premaswaroopa doesn't use much of it, if at all.
Yamunakalyani: I don't recall having heard an audio of any piece so far.
Kannadamaruvam: SG3M2PD2N3S- SNDPMGS (53/65/71 minus R). I have learnt a beautiful peice, Vande nandasoonum in this.

I have to refresh my memory about the scale of the other two (will do so upon my return home in a couple of weeks).
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#35  Postby chitravina ravikiran » 17 May 2011 01:53

I think we see the first use of the phrase 'guru guha',


Shankar,

OVK has used this phrase in a couple of other pieces too like sEnApatE namOstutE (gowLa). In this pieces, he splits that into:

dInArti bhanjana sharavaNabhava shivaguru guha dEva dEva (sEnApatE)

There are more than 10 pieces on Lord Subramanya in various kshetras including Pazhani, Sikkil etc. A fascinating opera of OVK is, Pranavopadesham (a single folk-style piece with 83 charanams), which of course highlights how Lord Subramanya attained the stature of guru.
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#36  Postby rshankar » 17 May 2011 02:31

Sri Ravi Kiran,
Thank you so much for all of this wonderful stuff! It is amazing...rOmAncak!
Is it true that Sri OVK has a composition where he refers to subrahmaNya as having 7 paDai vIDus - the six well known ones, and the seventh being his (OVK's) heart?
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#37  Postby chitravina ravikiran » 17 May 2011 09:35

Is it true that Sri OVK has a composition where he refers to subrahmaNya as having 7 paDai vIDus - the six well known ones, and the seventh being his (OVK's) heart?


Yes. This is in Bilahari - ninRingun aruL kATTum. In the charanam, he says:

OrEzhu paDai vIDu koNDAi - viLangum
ARu paDai vIDum en uLamum shErndAha
IrEzhulaham paNi koNDAi - eninum
engaL tamizh vaLLI ezhil munnE vIzhndAi

The final madhyamakala is also brilliant. However, I am yet to learn this song - I perhaps have got the audio though.

There are several poetic songs on Muruga. For eg: in Huseni (composed in Pazhani), he opens with:

aDi muDi kANAda daivattin mElEri
anju mukham kaNDa daivamE - engaL
Aru mukham koNda daivamE

Another brilliant song in Sama, ADinAn viLaiyADinAn - describes an imaginary game between Subramanya and Vinayaka.
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#38  Postby Ponbhairavi » 17 May 2011 12:26

In the R.K.post above:
engaL tamizh vaLLI ezhil munnE vIzhndAi
I may be excused for seeking an elementary clarification
Are there (m)any compositions of O V K in telegu ?
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#39  Postby Ponbhairavi » 17 May 2011 13:24

aDi muDi kANAda daivattin mElEri
anju mukham kaNDa daivamE - engaL
Aru mukham koNda daivamE
The meaning of these 3 lines is very tricky. my guess is this:Usually adi mudi kAnAdha ( in the meaning of kAnappadAda- passive voice )deivam is Sivan.
mElEri =byepassing or overlooking or ignoring the words of
anju mugam The face on which fear was writlarge viz that of Brahma who could not give the meaning of Pranavam
another explanation seems to be like this.

If we take kAnAda in the active voice one who has not seen either the feet or the head of the Supreme( Brahma failed midway in his mission )
mElEri in the meaning of winning over Brahma he saw his face which showed his fear.
kAnAda and mElEri are beautifully chosen;
the paraphrased version would read like this:
adimudi kAnAda deivathin mElEri
nAnmuganin (implied)
anju mugam kanda deivamE engal
Aru mugam konda deivamE
beautiful sequence of the numbers four five and six.!! ref; Kamaban who repeats the number firve in five meanings in his famous song: anjilE onru petrAn......
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#40  Postby vidya » 17 May 2011 17:54

Thanks shri.Ravikiran for the responses. Yes, it would be of value if a researcher well-versed in music, musicology and research-methods undertakes a detailed
melodic and musical study of these compositions in light of other events in musical/melodic history in the 1700-1800 period This will help validate
and analyze the assumptions.
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#41  Postby ShrutiLaya » 17 May 2011 18:06

chitravina ravikiran wrote:The best way to analyse them would be with audios - so far, I have managed to bring out around 50-60 including Navavaranams and Saptaratna krtis.


Dear Sri. Ravikiran,

I heartily second this. While I've been following your posts with great interest, it is hard to completely appreciate the unfamiliar songs from their descriptions or even (for me atleast, as one who is not too familiar with Tamil but can pick out the rough meaning when it is spoken) from the lyrics.

I realize that this is the real world, and there are commercial and copyright issues involved. But to the extent it is possible, it would be good to have audio links - even if the songs are rendered by students - to display what you mean ..

- Sreenadh
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#42  Postby cmlover » 17 May 2011 20:11

aDi muDi kANAda daivattin mElEri
anju mukham kaNDa daivamE - engaL
Aru mukham koNda daivamE

I will interpret this differently..

aDi muDi kANAda daivattin mElEri = Sivanin mElERi = surpassing Sivan
anju mukham kaNDa daivamE = (properly perhaps) anju mukhan kaNDa daivamE
= Sivan darishittha (worshipped) daivamE
(anju mukhan = the five-faced Lord = Sivan
This probably refers to Murugan doing praNavOpadEsham

I also like ponbhairavi's interpretation which is more poetic!
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#43  Postby hamsaa » 17 May 2011 20:19

Sreenadh wrote:

"to the extent it is possible, it would be good to have audio links - even if the songs are rendered by students - to display what you mean .."


Here is a link to a few audios that I have personally enjoyed listening to.

http://www.sangeethapriya.org/tributes/ovk/other/

Some of them appear to be from live concerts.
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#44  Postby rshankar » 17 May 2011 21:04

chitravina ravikiran wrote: Yes. This is in Bilahari - ninRingun aruL kATTum. In the charanam, he says:
Thank you!
chitavina ravikiran wrote:Another brilliant song in Sama, ADinAn viLaiyADinAn - describes an imaginary game between Subramanya and Vinayaka.
Is it possible for you to share the lyrics?

cmlover wrote:aDi muDi kANAda daivattin mElEri = Sivanin mElERi = surpassing Sivan
anju mukham kaNDa daivamE = (properly perhaps) anju mukhan kaNDa daivamE
= Sivan darishittha (worshipped) daivamE
(anju mukhan = the five-faced Lord = Sivan
This probably refers to Murugan doing praNavOpadEsham
Why not just 'Sivan (that Siva whose head [muDi] nor feet ([aDi] were seen by vishNu or brahmA) mEl Eri, yArum kANAda SivanArin aindu mukhataiyum kaNDa deivamE, Aru mukham koNDa deivamE!' Where the fact that he saw all five faces of Siva is an index of his (muruga's) prowess.
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#45  Postby cmlover » 17 May 2011 21:15

Shankar!
That is beautiful!
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#46  Postby vasanthakokilam » 17 May 2011 22:48

Ravi: Yes, quite nice. That is quite a prowess, climbing on something whose top was not even found by vishNu or brahmA and see the faces. Quite poetic! So it is a clever and poetic linkage of two different stories, right? But now I do not recall the background behind the 5 faces of Siva.
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#47  Postby rshankar » 17 May 2011 23:07

AFAIK, Siva's fifth face faced upwards...I am not sure he ever lost it....It was brahmA who lost one of his five faces....
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#48  Postby chitravina ravikiran » 18 May 2011 00:39

That Siva whose head [muDi] nor feet ([aDi] were seen by vishNu or brahmA) mEl Eri, yArum kANAda SivanArin aindu mukhataiyum kaNDa deivamE,


That is the most likely intent of OVK here.

Where the fact that he saw all five faces of Siva is an index of his (muruga's) prowess.


Prowess is definitely one part of it. But there is more here - the line also brings out

(a) the level of intimacy between Shiva and Muruga
(b) only a child of Shiva can ever gain access to Him completely - to the rest in the Universe, He is limitless.
(c) So OVK projects Muruga as having accomplished something beyond even Vishnu and Brahma - a fantastic opening for a song in which Muruga is the hero...

Mr Ponbhairavi wrote: "Are there (m)any compositions of O V K in telegu?"


No. He only used Sanskrit and Tamil for almost all of his works. However, I have seen a small number of pieces in Marathi - a language that gradually lost prominence in Tanjore area from late 1700s.

AFAIK, Siva's fifth face faced upwards...I am not sure he ever lost it....It was brahmA who lost one of his five faces....


Shiva still has 5 faces - none facing upwards: sadyOjAta, IshAna, vAma, aghOra, tatpuruSha.

Tyagaraja says in Nada tanumanisham, Chittaranjani: sadyOjAtAdi pancha vaktra ja SRGMPDN vara saptaswara. (There is a great question that the Kanchi Paramacharya posed related to this and stumped all musicians.) OVK mentions all the 5 names in the final charanam of his Todi Sapataratna, Jatadhara shankara.

Brahma lost his 5th face (upward facing) when Shiva plucked it out because he lied about having seen the head (muDi) of Shiva.
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#49  Postby rshankar » 18 May 2011 00:58

Sri Ravikiran - thank you for the clarification and corrections!

Chitravina Ravikiran wrote:Brahma lost his 5th face (upward facing) when Shiva plucked it out because he lied about having seen the head (muDi) of Shiva.
Because of which he (Siva) incurred the brahmahatti dOSam...and the skull (kapAla) stuck to his (Siva's) hands as a begging bowl (described by muttutANDavar as talai OTTilE irand-uNDIr enranda uNmaiyai shonnEnO? in Edukittanai mODi; and by purandara dAsaru in the third caraNam of candracUDa- the dOSa was removed when jaganmAtA, pArvati, as annapUrNa offered him bhiksha.
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Re: Value of OVK's contributions

#50  Postby chitravina ravikiran » 18 May 2011 01:00

Shankar, thanks for more on the Shiva story...

Meantime, here are the lyrics of Adinan in Sama. Apart from the vivid portrayal of the manner in which the siblings play, the melodic treatment of Sama in this piece is elaborate. OVK has composed numerous 1-kalai masterpieces of sprawling dimensions.

He has also shown innovation within the krti form in the charanam - splitting the 8-line slow section into 3+3+2, which gives a singular musical movement to the piece. I have expanded upon this in my book.

This song is part of the album, Sundara Natarajam, downloadable on a song by song basis at http://www.acharyanet.com

sAmA - Adi

P: ADinAn viLaiyADinAn ainkaran tannoDu arumukhan tiruviLai (yADinAn)

A: tEDi tEDi vandArum vizhaiya dEvarum yAvarum pU mazhai pozhiya
M K: ADi vanda suralOka sundarihaL AlOlam pADi vara kOlAhalamAha (ADinAn)

C: mUlap-poruLum para mOnap-poruLum onrAi
mundi nI mundi nAn enRADudE - kaNDa -
mozhiyum maraiyum taDumArudE

nIlam iDarkkaiyum neDuvarai peN kaiyum
nErukku nEr ninrADudE kaNDa -
nenjamum Ananda kUttADudE

mElai eRinda pandO kOlam kATTi maraiya
viN kadir tannaip-piDittADudE

M K: viritta shaDai muDi pOna veN madiyum meyyum naDunguravAhavum
vidhi mahan nAradan tudiyinai kUDavum miha miha tonnishai pADavum
tirattinODu Anaka dundubhi oru tanattanantanam pODavum
taN kadir tanadu sukirtamena vikirtamiDa adir peruha tikurtamena viLai (yADinan)
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